“Man and Natural Resources”

Men need to use materials found on Earth to meet their needs.These elements were formed in nature over millions of years and are called natural resources. Therefore it is necessary that we as a people conscious of the importance of these natural resources that we do everything we can to care for our environment because if we do we will lose everything we offer these resources. So do not forget if you want to live well, just enough not to pollute our environment, has a right to the planet and yourself.

Notation Main

Notation Main article: Orbital atomic physics and chemistry in a standard notation used to describe the electron configurations of atoms and molecules. For atoms, the notation contains the definition of atomic orbitals (in the form nl, for example 1s, 2p, 3d, 4f), indicating the number of electrons assigned to each orbital (or orbital set in the same binder) and superscript. For example, hydrogen has one electron in the s of the first layer, so its electronic configuration 1s1 type. Lithium has two electrons in the 1s subshell and one in the 2s subshell (highest energy), so its electronic configuration 1s2 2s1 type (pronounced “a-s-two, two-s-one”). For phosphorus (atomic number 15), we have: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3P3.For atoms with many electrons, this notation can be quite long as you use a shorthand notation that takes into account that the first sub-layers are equal to those of a noble gas. For example, phosphorus, differs from neon (1s2 2s2 2p6) only by the presence of the third layer. Thus, the electron configuration of phosphorus can be written on the neon as Ne 3s2 3P3. This notation is useful when you consider that most of the chemical properties of elements are determined by the outer layers. The order in which they write the orbitals is given by the relative stability of the orbitals, first write those with lower energy orbital. This means that, although it remains general guidelines, there can be exceptions. Most of the atoms follow the order given by the Madelung rule. Thus, in accordance with this rule, the electron configuration of iron is written as Ar 4s2 3d6.Another possible notation first the orbital grouping with the same quantum number n, so that the configuration of iron is expressed as Ar 3d6 4s2 (grouping the 3d orbital on 3s and 3p that are implicit in the configuration of argon). The superscript 1 of the orbitals occupied by a single electron is not required. It is quite common to see the lyrics of the orbitals written in italics or cursive. However, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommends using normal font, as is done here.

Renewable Energy Resources

Renewable Energy Resources The National Energy Policy of 2007 supports the diversification and increased energy sources, primarily through renewable energy such as hydro, geothermal, solar, wind and biofuels (such as coal and natural gas). Apart from hydropower and geothermal energy, the government forecasts an increase of 50 MW additional generation from renewable resources in the next 10 years from wind, solar and mini-hydropower plants. In November 2007, El Salvador adopted the Law on Tax Incentives for Renewable Energy Development.This new legal framework includes incentives such as tax exemption of 10 years for projects under 10 MW of generation capacity. A New System for Renewable Energy Development (SIFER) provides for the establishment of a Development Revolving Fund Renewable Energy (FOFER) that give loans, guarantees and assistance to finance feasibility studies for new projects.

Sugar cane to produce biofuels

The history of cultivating sugar cane in Andalusia has had periods of great splendor and other periods, like the present, in which various factors especially economic, have led to a major crisis in the sector. However, as the saying goes “no evil that lasts a hundred years” and the ills afflicting the cane has its days numbered. The resurgence of the crop comes from the hand of biofuels, especially bioethanol. This fuel is not without controversy in recent months, contributing, however, to control climate change that is causing the so named and worrisome greenhouse planet. The most prominent example of the benefits that the cultivation of sugarcane has for the environment is found in Brazil. Millions of drivers in Sao Paulo spend several hours every day in monumental traffic jams. But their cars do not pollute like ours because they burn alcohol derived from the increasingly extensive sugar cane plantations in the country. Brazil began to use alcohol for its vehicles in the second decade of the twentieth century.It was not until the eighties, due to the international embargo of OPEC, when the government was planned to conduct a national program for the production and distribution of alcohol throughout the country. It financed new ethanol plants, he made the national oil company Petrobras, who handled the installation of bioethanol filling stations across the country and offered incentives to car manufacturers operating in Brazil in order to concert the new fuel engines. Today almost all vehicles circulating in Brazil they do with alcohol. The procurement of ethanol from corn involves the provision of expensive enzymes to ensure the fermentation process. The large amount of sugar in the cane makes the process of fermentation begins almost the cut. The cultivation of sugarcane can produce between 5,700 and 7500 liters per hectare, more than double what can be achieved by growing corn. The bioethanol plant in Sao Martinho is the largest in the world for production of bioethanol and sugar. It is surrounded by a vast “desert emerald” which goes as far as the eye can see. The plant processes seven million tonnes of cane annually producing 300 million liters of fuel and half a million tonnes of sugar. This plant is fully autonomous in terms of energy consumption. Producing 100 of the electricity it needs for its production process. In Andalusia we have historical data, for example in the municipality of Malaga, they can produce 115,000 tons of cane per year. This would involve obtaining production of nearly 5 million liters of bioethanol per year.The urban pressure has made much of the land that once was devoted to sugarcane cultivation is now urbanized. However, the available agricultural land is still considerable, being able to even increase the space available in those years. The efficiency of generating plants using sugar cane ethanol is very high, the order of 8 units of energy for every unit of fossil fuel consumed. The use of new tractors for the collection and application of new management techniques would yield much higher levels, environment to 12-13 units. So that will again promoted the cultivation of sugarcane, in this case as an energy crop, domestic production must be protected by import tariffs, since currently the prices paid to individual cane growers in Spain are not competitive, if we investigate the sum paid towards developing countries.

Mangrove Mangroves are

Mangrove Mangroves are a kind of ecosystem often considered a type of biome, consisting of trees very salt tolerant occupying the intertidal zone near the mouths of freshwater streams from the coasts of tropical latitudes of the Earth. Thus, among the mangrove areas include estuaries and coastal areas. They have an enormous biodiversity with high productivity, being both a large number of bird species such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs, etc.. Its name comes from trees that form, mangroves, where the word is derived mangrove mangrove (in German, French and English) is originally Guarani and means twisted tree. Barrier is usually given as reasons for development, coastal erosion has been rapid. They also provide habitat for numerous species, provide natural protection against disasters like strong winds, waves produced by hurricanes and even tsunamis (see article on this).To these ends are made of mangrove plantations in coastal areas of Vietnam, Thailand, the Philippines and India. Mangroves are habitats (sets of habitat) in tropical and subtropical amphibians (water and land features) located in the intertidal zone (between high and low tide), protected coastal or low exposure-gulfs and bays, marshes and estuaries and mouths of rivers with soft bottoms (sand, silt or clay, never rock) and who regularly receive freshwater runoff. Mangroves are characterized by the predominance, in a given site, a few species of a cohort of 20 genera and 54 species of trees (mangroves) belonging to very different families (16), which are associated with many other plant species herbaceous and woody all have in common property to tolerate extremes of salinity and low oxygen tensions in water and soil, and they have evolved special physiological or anatomical adaptations.Mangroves play a key role in coastal protection against erosion by wind and waves. They have high productivity, host large numbers of aquatic organisms, amphibians and terrestrial habitat for the juvenile stages of hundreds of species of fish, molluscs and crustaceans and therefore play a vital role in coastal fisheries and the continental shelf. They are temporary habitat for many migratory bird species north and south. They represent an irreplaceable resource in the wood industry (wood heavy, very long, long fiber and resistant to moisture) and employees curtimbres tannins and dry cleaning.

Medical literature The

Medical literature The medical literature is the set of journals, scientific publications, which are included research work on the different specialties, medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and ginecologia.En all countries, there are societies composed of different medical specialists, which in their functions, are ing the various journals in their respective countries. These research articles are of great importance since they contribute to the development of various specialties and are a source of knowledge and update for doctors in general. With the development of internet, the medical societies put at your disposal your web pages, through which they may make inquiries on topics of interest for each specialty.

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