The history of cultivating sugar cane in Andalusia has had periods of great splendor and other periods, like the present, in which various factors especially economic, have led to a major crisis in the sector. However, as the saying goes “no evil that lasts a hundred years” and the ills afflicting the cane has its days numbered. The resurgence of the crop comes from the hand of biofuels, especially bioethanol. This fuel is not without controversy in recent months, contributing, however, to control climate change that is causing the so named and worrisome greenhouse planet. The most prominent example of the benefits that the cultivation of sugarcane has for the environment is found in Brazil. Millions of drivers in Sao Paulo spend several hours every day in monumental traffic jams. But their cars do not pollute like ours because they burn alcohol derived from the increasingly extensive sugar cane plantations in the country. Brazil began to use alcohol for its vehicles in the second decade of the twentieth century.It was not until the eighties, due to the international embargo of OPEC, when the government was planned to conduct a national program for the production and distribution of alcohol throughout the country. It financed new ethanol plants, he made the national oil company Petrobras, who handled the installation of bioethanol filling stations across the country and offered incentives to car manufacturers operating in Brazil in order to concert the new fuel engines. Today almost all vehicles circulating in Brazil they do with alcohol. The procurement of ethanol from corn involves the provision of expensive enzymes to ensure the fermentation process. The large amount of sugar in the cane makes the process of fermentation begins almost the cut. The cultivation of sugarcane can produce between 5,700 and 7500 liters per hectare, more than double what can be achieved by growing corn. The bioethanol plant in Sao Martinho is the largest in the world for production of bioethanol and sugar. It is surrounded by a vast “desert emerald” which goes as far as the eye can see. The plant processes seven million tonnes of cane annually producing 300 million liters of fuel and half a million tonnes of sugar. This plant is fully autonomous in terms of energy consumption. Producing 100 of the electricity it needs for its production process. In Andalusia we have historical data, for example in the municipality of Malaga, they can produce 115,000 tons of cane per year. This would involve obtaining production of nearly 5 million liters of bioethanol per year.The urban pressure has made much of the land that once was devoted to sugarcane cultivation is now urbanized. However, the available agricultural land is still considerable, being able to even increase the space available in those years. The efficiency of generating plants using sugar cane ethanol is very high, the order of 8 units of energy for every unit of fossil fuel consumed. The use of new tractors for the collection and application of new management techniques would yield much higher levels, environment to 12-13 units. So that will again promoted the cultivation of sugarcane, in this case as an energy crop, domestic production must be protected by import tariffs, since currently the prices paid to individual cane growers in Spain are not competitive, if we investigate the sum paid towards developing countries.